Even today, 20 years after NAFTA was adopted in 1994, the legacy of the trade agreement is controversial not only in the United States, but also in Canada and Mexico. Despite these imperfections, Kemmsies believes that "NAFTA is on the verge of great success," but he also fears that "Mexico will kill the golden goose before sanding an egg" by imposing export taxes on foreign companies doing business there, before these firms are fully convinced that they should be in Mexico in the long run. "Mexico needs to worry about getting its act together before global automakers and other foreign investors have more firmly immersed their roots on Mexican soil." Given the fragility of the global economy – and the uncertainties associated with Mexico`s ambitious reform effort – many foreign companies "are still frightened and risk-averse. We are not yet beyond the start-up phase in Mexico. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a pact to remove most of the barriers to trade between the United States, Canada and Mexico that came into force on January 1, 1993. Some of its provisions were implemented immediately, while others were phased in over the next 15 years. NAFTA has increased U.S. economic growth by up to 0.5% per year. Agriculture, automobiles and services were the main beneficiaries.
Despite these benefits, the United States, Mexico and Canada renegotiated nafta on September 30, 2018. The new agreement is referred to as the agreement between the United States, Mexico-Canada and ratified by the legislative branches of each country. Mexico was the first country to ratify the agreement in 2019. The U.S. Congress approved the agreement in mid-January and Donald Trump officially signed it on January 29, 2020. Canada ratified it on March 13, 2020. But while Mexico "strikes us economically" in the trade sense, imports were not the only ones responsible for the real growth of merchandise trade from 1993 to 2016 of 264%. Real exports to Mexico more than tripled during this period and increased by 213%; Imports, however, exceeded 317%.
It is estimated that 80% of U.S. GDP is made up of services such as financial services and health care. NAFTA removes trade barriers in most regulated service sectors. NAFTA requires governments to publish all the rules, which reduces the hidden costs of doing business. The United States had a trade surplus with NAFTA countries of $28.3 billion for services in 2009 and a trade deficit of $94.6 billion (36.4% per year) in 2010. This trade deficit represented 26.8% of the total U.S. trade deficit.  A 2018 study on international trade published by the Center for International Relations identified irregularities in NAFTA trade patterns using network theory analysis techniques. The study showed that the U.S.
trade balance was influenced by the potential for tax evasion in Ireland.  In 2015, the Congressional Research Service concluded that "the overall net impact of NAFTA on the U.S. economy appears to be relatively small, not least because trade with Canada and Mexico accounts for a small percentage of U.S. GDP. However, there have been adjustment costs for workers and businesses as the three countries have prepared for more open trade and investment between their economies. The report also estimated that nafta has added $80 billion to the U.S. economy since its inception, a 0.5% increase in U.S. GDP.  Since NAFTA, trade between the United States and its North American neighbors has more than tripled and grown faster than U.S. trade with the rest of the world. Canada and Mexico are the top two destinations for U.S. exports, with a share of more than one-third. Most estimates conclude that the agreement increased U.S.
gross domestic product (GDP) by less than 0.5%, or an allocation of $80 billion to the United States.